With regards to using the name “Muhammad” when referring to the Messenger of Allaah sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states:

And his (ibn Mas’ood radi Allaahu ‘anhu) statement:

Whoever wishes to look at the wasiyyah (emphasised command) of Muhammad sall Allaahu ‘alaiyhi wa sallam….

 Meaning: the Messenger of Allaah Muhammad ibn ‘Abdillaah al Haashimee al Qarashee sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam.

And this expression from ibn Mas’ood shows the permissibility of the like of it, such as for example:
"Muhammad, the Messenger of Allaah sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said…."
and:
"The wasiyyah of Muhammad sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam…."

 And this does not contradict His statement, He the Most High:

<<Do not make the du’aa (calling) of the Messenger amongst yourselves like your calling one of another...>>
Soorah an Noor (24) aayah 63

 - because the du’aa of the Messenger here means munaadah (calling out to him). So do not say when calling out, “O Muhammad!” Rather say, “O Messenger of Allaah!”

As for informing (about something) then it is more encompassing than the issue of seeking (something from a person), so it is permissible for you to say, “I am a follower of Muhammad sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam,” or “O Allaah, send salaat upon Muhammad” or the like of that.

(Al qawl ul mufeed (1/44) of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)
 
 
With regards to the use of the singular at times and the plural at other times in Allaah’s addressing the people in the Qur-aan, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states:

And the address in the aayah is to the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam but He said:

<<Wa qadaa rabbuka allaa ta’budoo illaa iyyaahu…>>

meaning:

<<And your (in the singular form) Lord has decreed that you (in the plural form) worship none except Him alone…>>
Soorah al Israa (17) aayah 23

And He did not say, that you (singular) worship none.

And the like of this in the Qur’aan is His statement, He the Most High:
<<O Prophet, when you (in the plural form) divorce the women…>>
Soorah at Talaaq (65) aayah 1

Therefore the first address is to the Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam and the second is general (to the people).  So what is the benefit behind this changing of the manner (of addressing)?

1) To draw attention, because getting the attention of the person being addressed is something desired by the one speaking. And this occurs here by changing the manner (of addressing).

2) That the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was the leader of his nation. And the address directed to him was directed to all of his nation.

3) An indication that whatever the Messenger sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam is addressed with, then it is for him and for his nation – except for something where there is a proof that it is specifically for him.

4) And in this aayah in particular, there is an sign that the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam was one who was under the control of the Lord, and not (himself) a Lord and Nurturer - a servant, and not one who is to be worshipped.  So he comes under His statement:

<<…that you (in the plural form) worship..>>

And sufficient for him in nobility is that he be a servant of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic.

(Al qawl ul mufeed (1/32 to 33) of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah)
 
 
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From Sh Fawzaan's explanation of Sharh-us-Sunnah by Imaam al-Barbahaaree:

Quote:

...as for it being said that ‘we will gather together upon what we agree about and as for what we disagree about then we’ll just pardon each other’.  This is something impossible if it refers to differing in `aqeedah.  However if it is differing in the matter of fiqhand matters of questions of fiqh which are possible can be this way or that way, then that may be allowable, even though even there what is still obligatory is following the evidence even in matters of fiqh.  He the Most High said:

  فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ

So if you differ about anything then refer it back to Allaah and to the Messenger

Sooratun-Nisaa (4), aayah 59

[Translated by Abu Talhah rahimahullaah]

Listen to the whole lesson here
Read the whole transcript here
 
 
With regards to having the correct niyyah (intention) when seeking knowledge,  Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah states:

And the Prophet sall Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:

Whomever Allaah intends good for, He grants him fiqh (understanding) of the Religion.”[1]

 So if Allaah bestows fiqh of your religion upon you – and what is meant by fiqh (understanding) here is knowledge of the Legislation, so this includes knowledge of the issues of ‘aqeedah and tawheed and other than that – so if you see that Allaah has blessed you with this, then receive glad tidings of good because Allaah, the Most High, wished good for you.

And Imaam Ahmad said:
Al ‘ilm (knowledge) – nothing is equal to it, for the person who makes his niyyah  correct.

They said:
How is the niyyah made correct, O Aboo ‘Abdillaah?

He said:
(The person) has as his intention, removing ignorance from himself and from other than himself.


(Sharh hilyah taalib il ‘ilm p13 of Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam )

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[1] Reported by al Bukhaaree (71), Muslim and others from the hadeeth of Mu’aawiyyah radi Allaahu ‘anhu.
 
 
The scholar  Abdur Rahmaan ibn Nasir as Sa’dee rahimahullaah said about the statement of Allaah, the Most High:

<<And when some harm touches man, he calls upon his Lord repentantly.

Then when He bestows a blessing upon him from Himself, he forgets that which he was supplicating about beforehand and he sets up rivals along with Allaah.>>
(Soorah az Zumar (39) aayah 8)

He, the Most High, informs (us) of His generosity to His servant, and His fine treatment and goodness to him – and how little is the gratitude of His servant.

And that when harm touches him, by way of illness or poverty or falling into difficulty at sea or other than that (and) that he knows that none can save him in this situation except Allaah, then he calls upon Him beseeching (Him) and turning in repentance; and he seeks rescue from Him for the removal of that which has befallen him and he implores (Him) in that.

Then when He bestows a blessing – (meaning) Allaah

a blessing upon him from Himself – in that He takes away the harm and distress that he had

he forgets that which he was supplicating about beforehand -  meaning: he forgets that harm about which he had called upon Allaah; and he continues as if no harm had afflicted him and he persists upon his shirk.

(Tayseer ul Kareem ir Rahmaan of as Sa’dee rahimahullaah, translated by Nasser ibn Najam)